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Selasa, 13 Desember 2016

50 Hukum (law) di dunia komputasi

1 Glass Requirement deficiencies are the prime source of project failures.

2 Boehm 1 Errors are most frequent during the requirements and design activities and are the more expensive the later they are removed.

3 Boehm 2 Prototyping (significantly) reduces requirement and design errors, especially for user interfaces.

4 Davis The value of models depends on the view taken, but none is best for all purposes.

5 Curtis Good designs require deep application domain knowledge.

6 Simon Hierarchical structures reduce complexity.

7 Constantine A structure is stable if cohesion is strong and coupling low.

8 Parnas Only what is hidden can be changed without risk.

9 Denert Separation of concerns leads to standard architectures.

10 Fitts-Shneiderman Screen pointing-time is a function of distance and width.

11 DeRemer What applies to small systems does not apply to large ones.

12 Corbató Productivity and reliability depend on the length of a program’s text, independent of language level used.

13 Dijkstra-Mills-Wirth  Well-structured programs have fewer errors and are easier to maintain.

14 Lanergan The larger and more decentralized an organization, the more likely it is that it has reuse potential.

15 McIlroy Software reuse reduces cycle time and increases productivity and quality.

16 Conway A system reflects the organizational structure that built

17 Fagan Inspections significantly increase productivity, quality, and project stability.

18 Porter–Votta Effectiveness of inspections is fairly independent of its organizational form.

19 Basili Perspective-based inspections are (highly) effective and efficient.

20 Hetzel–Myers A combination of different V&V methods outperforms any single method alone.

21 Sackman 1 Online debugging is more efficient than offline debugging.

22 Dijkstra Testing can show the presence but not the absence of errors.

23 Weinberg A developer is unsuited to test his or her code.

24 Pareto–Zipf Approximately 80 percent of defects come from 20 percent of modules.

25 Gray–Serlin Performance testing benefits from system-level benchmarks.

26 Nielsen-Norman Usability is quantifiable.

27 Lehman 1 A system that is used will be changed.

28 Lehman 2 An evolving system increases its complexity, unless work is done to reduce it.

29 Lehman 3 System evolution is determined by a feedback process.

30 Basili–Möller Smaller changes have a higher error density than large ones.

31 Sackman 2 Individual developer performance varies considerably.

32 Nelson–Jones A multitude of factors influence developer productivity.

33 Boehm 3 Development effort is a (non-linear) function of product size.

34 DeMarco–Glass Most cost estimates tend to be too low.

35 Humphrey Mature processes and personal discipline enhance planning, increase productivity, and reduce errors.

36 Brooks Adding manpower to a late project makes it later.

37 Baumol Products replace services through productivity gains.

38 Kupfmüller Humans receive most information through the visual system and store it in a spatially organized memory.

39 Gestalt Humans tend to structure what they see to form cohesive patterns.

40 Miller Short-term memory is limited to 7 ± 2 chunks of information.

41 Krause Multimodal information is easier to remember than single mode.

42 Librarian The more knowledge that is available, the more effort has to be spent on the processes to use it.

43 Apprentice It takes 5000 hours to turn a novice into an expert.

44 Maslow-Herzberg  Human needs and desires are strictly prioritized.

45 Moore The price/performance of processors is halved every 18 months.

46 Hoagland The capacity of magnetic devices increases by a factor of ten every decade.

47 Cooper Wireless bandwidth doubles every 2.5 years.

48 Morris-Ferguson  Architecture wins over technology.

49 Metcalfe The value of a network increases with the square of its users.

50 Bayes The probability that a hypothesis is true increases the more unlikely the new event is that confirms this hypothesis.

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